The language you will learn is Python. It is a well known and established programming language. If you should get stuck or feel the tutorials are too easy, there are many resources online that can help you.
A big focus is on the programming learning curve. The first step is to just run a prewritten script. The next step is to open a piece of code and change a number. In the end you will be writing scripts that balance your economy and solve rather complex tasks. The idea is that if you reach level 30 and have earned ten Programming Badges, you will probably be able to pass the test in a high school programming course.
Depending on your programming experience the hint system will let you specify how much help you will get. If you are a proficient programmer you don't need to be taught what a for-loop is.
Get started by building a Programming Center. In that building you will find the controls for opening the Code Window. It opens up below the main game window and let you have full access to the rest of the game without bothering your scripting.
Upgrade this building to get access to more advanced programming features like timers that automatically calls your scripts for you. Each new level also gives you the next programming tutorial.